Events of the Tribulation: The Last Three and a Half Years (Part 1)
The woman fled into the wilderness, where she had a place prepared by God, to be nourished there for 1,260 days. … When the dragon saw that he had been thrown down to the earth, he persecuted the woman who had given birth to the male child. The woman was given two wings of a great eagle, so that she could fly from the serpent’s presence to her place in the wilderness, where she was nourished for a time, times, and half a time. From his mouth the serpent spewed water like a river flowing after the woman, to sweep her away with a flood. But the earth helped the woman. The earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the river that the dragon had spewed from his mouth. So the dragon was furious with the woman and went off to wage war against the rest of her offspring—those who keep the commands of God and hold firmly to the testimony about Jesus. (Revelation 12:6, 13–17)
Passages like Matthew 24:9–24 and Revelation 12:6, 13–17 clearly indicate that the last three and a half years of the Tribulation period will be a time of severe persecution for the nation of Israel. Help will come to the nation as they flee to the wilderness, for Satan and the Antichrist will make war with those Jews who have become believers, who have trusted Christ as their Messiah, for three and a half years. During this time of severe persecution, God’s great purpose of redeeming Israel takes place.
Then they will hand you over to be persecuted, and they will kill you. You will be hated by all nations because of my name. Then many will fall away, betray one another, and hate one another. Many false prophets will rise up and deceive many. Because lawlessness will multiply, the love of many will grow cold. But the one who endures to the end will be saved. This good news of the kingdom will be proclaimed in all the world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come. … “So when you see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place” (let the reader understand), “then those in Judea must flee to the mountains. A man on the housetop must not come down to get things out of his house, and a man in the field must not go back to get his coat. Woe to pregnant women and nursing mothers in those days! Pray that your escape may not be in winter or on a Sabbath. For at that time there will be great distress, the kind that hasn’t taken place from the beginning of the world until now and never will again. Unless those days were cut short, no one would be saved. But those days will be cut short because of the elect.
“If anyone tells you then, ‘See, here is the Messiah!’ or, ‘Over here!’ do not believe it. For false messiahs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.” (Matthew 24:9–24)
The beast was given a mouth to utter boasts and blasphemies. It was allowed to exercise authority for forty-two months. It began to speak blasphemies against God: to blaspheme his name and his dwelling—those who dwell in heaven. And it was permitted to wage war against the saints and to conquer them. It was also given authority over every tribe, people, language, and nation. (Revelation 13:5–7)
At this stage in the Tribulation period, the Antichrist has successfully filled all the power vacuums and has effectively become the ruler of the world. Revelation 13 clearly tells us that the Antichrist will rule the world for a forty-two-month period. For the most part, initially, the world’s population will follow him, rather than oppose his rule. Towards the end of this three-and-a-half-year period, though, there will be a rebellion against him, which will lead to Armageddon.
And I saw a beast coming up out of the sea. It had ten horns and seven heads. On its horns were ten crowns, and on its heads were blasphemous names. The beast I saw was like a leopard, its feet were like a bear’s, and its mouth was like a lion’s mouth. The dragon gave the beast his power, his throne, and great authority. One of its heads appeared to be fatally wounded, but its fatal wound was healed. The whole earth was amazed and followed the beast. They worshiped the dragon because he gave authority to the beast. And they worshiped the beast, saying, “Who is like the beast? Who is able to wage war against it?” The beast was given a mouth to utter boasts and blasphemies. It was allowed to exercise authority for forty-two months. It began to speak blasphemies against God: to blaspheme his name and his dwelling—those who dwell in heaven. And it was permitted to wage war against the saints and to conquer them. It was also given authority over every tribe, people, language, and nation. All those who live on the earth will worship it, everyone whose name was not written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who was slaughtered. If anyone has ears to hear, let him listen. If anyone is to be taken captive, into captivity he goes. If anyone is to be killed with a sword, with a sword he will be killed. This calls for endurance and faithfulness from the saints. (Revelation 13:1–10)
The Judgments of God
The three series of judgments (seals, trumpets, and bowls) are successive judgments, in other words, each judgment follows the next one (Revelation 6:1–17; 8:1–9:21; 16:1–21). It is during these three and a half years that the world will experience the trumpet and bowl judgments. With the opening of chapter 8, the chronological list of prophetic events is continued. As the seventh seal is broken by the Lord (Revelation 8:1), the trumpet judgments begin (Revelation 8:6). These judgments are more severe than the first six seal judgments and come in answer to the prayers of the saints of God (Revelation 8:2–5).
The Seven Trumpets and Three Woes
The seal judgments were bad, but the trumpet judgments will be worse. So much so that when heaven’s inhabitants become aware of them, “there was silence in heaven for about half an hour” (Revelation 8:1).
The first angel blew his trumpet, and hail and fire, mixed with blood, were hurled to the earth. So a third of the earth was burned up, a third of the trees were burned up, and all the green grass was burned up. (Revelation 8:7)
Is the language symbolic, or should the text be taken literally? The best way to decide whether the trumpet judgments are literal or symbolic is to study them in connection with the plagues of Egypt as found in Exodus 7–11. First, a parallel for this judgment is found in the tenth plague in Exodus 9:18–26:
“Tomorrow at this time I will rain down the worst hail that has ever occurred in Egypt from the day it was founded until now. Therefore give orders to bring your livestock and all that you have in the field into shelters. Every person and animal that is in the field and not brought inside will die when the hail falls on them.” Those among Pharaoh’s officials who feared the word of the Lord made their servants and livestock flee to shelters, but those who didn’t take to heart the Lord’s word left their servants and livestock in the field.
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven and let there be hail throughout the land of Egypt—on people and animals and every plant of the field in the land of Egypt.” So Moses stretched out his staff toward heaven, and the Lord sent thunder and hail. Lightning struck the land, and the Lord rained hail on the land of Egypt. The hail, with lightning flashing through it, was so severe that nothing like it had occurred in the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. Throughout the land of Egypt, the hail struck down everything in the field, both people and animals. The hail beat down every plant of the field and shattered every tree in the field. The only place it didn’t hail was in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites were.
Considering that in the account of Exodus, there was literal hail and fire, there is no reason for taking this judgment in a figurative sense. There is no indication they should be taken as symbols.
The hail and fire, mingled with blood, will cause the world’s vegetation to be destroyed. This massive destruction of vegetation will no doubt lead to major food shortages and most likely affect air quality. John Phillips writes,
Truly the dawning of the atomic age is of great prophetic significance. … We have lived on the edge of a potential holocaust for so long we find it difficult to believe that we are on the brink of the Rapture of the Church and the subsequent unleashing of apocalyptic doom.1
As we consider the natural disasters the world has experienced, is the idea of such devastation unthinkable? I don’t think there is a human alive who does not see the possibility of such an event. David Jeremiah states,
Blackened land, charred and smoldering, covers America, Europe, Australia, Africa, and all the continents. Wildlife dies. Death emits its acrid odors. I believe the earth will experience an ecological upheaval that will make our toxic dumps seem like playgrounds.2
How hail and fire could be mixed with blood is not clear, though entirely possible since it is a supernatural judgment. Joel 2:30 prophesied a judgment of “blood, fire, and columns of smoke” in the end-times.
I agree with M. R. DeHaan when he says,
I have refrained from commenting on the four trumpet judgments because I believe that they should be read and interpreted literally. The moment we begin to spiritualize and make the sun and the stars mean something other than the sun and the stars, we err, for then everyone has his own interpretation. Believe it literally and you will have no difficulty. When the first angel sounds, literal hail and fire fall from heaven.3
The second angel blew his trumpet, and something like a great mountain ablaze with fire was hurled into the sea. So a third of the sea became blood, a third of the living creatures in the sea died, and a third of the ships were destroyed. (Revelation 8:8–9)
Although we are not specifically told, some New Testament scholars agree that the instrument of judgment could be a reference to a huge meteor that ignites upon its entry to the earth’s atmosphere. Others interpret it as possibly volcanic activity or a nuclear missile plunging into the sea and detonating. In any case, it is not necessary to attempt to find something in the realm of experience that will perfectly match this description. John Walvoord explains,
The tendency of expositors is to give a symbolic meaning to this great judgment. It is not impossible, however, to suggest a reasonable literal interpretation. It is earlier indicated in the sixth seal that the stars from heaven fall and that there are various disturbances of this character during this period. It may be that the great mountain, instead of being a symbol of a government, as is sometimes the case in Scripture, is actually a large object falling from the heavens. Again there seems to be a parallel to the plagues of Egypt. Just as the River Nile and all other bodies of water in Egypt were turned to blood when Aaron stretched out his rod over the waters of Egypt, so this object apparently had a similar effect upon the sea. Though some believe that the sea becoming blood is the language of appearance, that is, that the sea through some chemical change turns blood-red, the natural effect is devastating in that the judgment destroys a third of the ships and a third of life in the sea. The probability is that all life and all ships are destroyed in one portion of the earth, the area nearest to the impact of the great burning mountain.
The interpreter of these and later judgments is constantly faced with the problems of how far to take the literal and the symbolic. The point of view here being expressed is that these judgments should be interpreted literally insofar as this can be reasonably followed. To make the mountain a form of human government, the sea the Roman Empire, and the ships that are destroyed the church or organized religion, is to read into the passage far more than is justified. Though all questions cannot be answered, the unmistakable implication of these judgments is that God is dealing in righteous wrath with the wicked earth.4
The impact of such an event would certainly have the effect on the ocean described by John here. Just imagine the tidal wave this would create, leading to the destruction of a third of all ships in the ocean (cargo, passenger, and military). A third of all marine life would die, perhaps being the reason why a third of the sea turns into blood. Also imagine the domino effect this will have on every aspect of life on earth. Consider the political, economic, and health effects this calamity will create.
The first two trumpet judgments will bring devastation on both the land and the sea, which are the beginning of the final catastrophes God will release on an alienated and disobedient world.
The third angel blew his trumpet, and a great star, blazing like a torch, fell from heaven. It fell on a third of the rivers and springs of water. The name of the star is Wormwood, and a third of the waters became wormwood. So, many of the people died from the waters, because they had been made bitter. (Revelation 8:10–11)
Again, we are not specifically told what this “great star” is, but two theories seem to prevail: First, another celestial body such as a comet which leaves a fiery trail and disintegrates as it nears the earth’s surface, scattering and impacting the earth’s surface in many different locations. Second, nuclear explosions. “Wormwood” is a bitter poisonous substance, derived from a root, that causes drunkenness and eventually death (Deuteronomy 29:18; Proverbs 5:4; Jeremiah 9:15; Lamentations 3:15). If the view that a nuclear explosion is correct, then “wormwood” could be the radioactive fallout following such an explosion.
This judgment reaches inland affecting the rivers and wells, or sources of water, making the freshwater bitter like wormwood. One-third of all freshwater will become so polluted that drinking it could be fatal. Warren Wiersbe writes,
The word translated “wormwood” gives us our English word absinthe, which is a popular liqueur in some countries of the world. The word means “undrinkable,” and in the Old Testament was synonymous with sorrow and great calamity. Jeremiah, “the Weeping Prophet,” often used it (Jer. 9:15; 23:15; Lam. 3:15, 19), and so did Amos (Amos 5:7, “those who turn justice into wormwood,” NASB). Moses warned that idolatry would bring sorrow to Israel, like a root producing wormwood (Deut. 29:18). Solomon warned that immorality might seem pleasant, but in the end, it produces bitterness like wormwood (Prov. 5:4).5
This judgment will not only impact humans; it will no doubt devastate all creatures who live in those bodies of water as well as the vegetation. More and more today, we are hearing ecologists and other environmentalists sounding the alarm regarding the deadly consequences of polluted bodies of water.
There is no direct parallel between this judgment and any of the plagues of Egypt, though you may recall that after the Exodus, Israel came to the waters at Marah (which means “bitter”). Exodus 15 tells us that Moses interceded for the people, and God purified the water supply, but no supernatural purification will be available during the Tribulation.
They came to Marah, but they could not drink the water at Marah because it was bitter—that is why it was named Marah. The people grumbled to Moses, “What are we going to drink?” So he cried out to the Lord, and the Lord showed him a tree. When he threw it into the water, the water became drinkable.
The Lord made a statute and ordinance for them at Marah, and he tested them there. He said, “If you will carefully obey the Lord your God, do what is right in his sight, pay attention to his commands, and keep all his statutes, I will not inflict any illnesses on you that I inflicted on the Egyptians. For I am the Lord who heals you.”
Then they came to Elim, where there were twelve springs and seventy date palms, and they camped there by the water. (Exodus 15:23–27)
Such divine intervention will not be available during the Tribulation. Whether it is a celestial body or nuclear explosions, the effect is devastating. A third of the world’s fresh water supply will be contaminated (lakes and reservoirs will be filled with toxic waters). This will result in the death of many around the world.
The fourth angel blew his trumpet, and a third of the sun was struck, a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of them were darkened. A third of the day was without light and also a third of the night.
I looked and heard an eagle flying high overhead, crying out in a loud voice, “Woe! Woe! Woe to those who live on the earth, because of the remaining trumpet blasts that the three angels are about to sound!” (Revelation 8:12–13)
On day one of Creation, God said, “‘Let there be light,’ and there was light” (Genesis 1:3). On day four of Creation, God created the sun, moon, and stars (Genesis 1:15–19). The God who created the “lights in the expanse” can diminish those lights to one-third. Day and night will seem to be reversed, for there will be sixteen hours of darkness and eight hours of daylight. This corresponds to the ninth plague of Egypt and Christ’s prediction.
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, and there will be darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness that can be felt.” So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was thick darkness throughout the land of Egypt for three days. One person could not see another, and for three days they did not move from where they were. Yet all the Israelites had light where they lived. Pharaoh summoned Moses and said, “Go, worship the Lord. Even your families may go with you; only your flocks and herds must stay behind.” Moses responded, “You must also let us have sacrifices and burnt offerings to prepare for the Lord our God. Even our livestock must go with us; not a hoof will be left behind because we will take some of them to worship the Lord our God. We will not know what we will use to worship the Lord until we get there.” But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was unwilling to let them go. Pharaoh said to him, “Leave me! Make sure you never see my face again, for on the day you see my face, you will die.” “As you have said,” Moses replied, “I will never see your face again.” (Exodus 10:21–29)
Then there will be signs in the sun, moon, and stars; and there will be anguish on the earth among nations bewildered by the roaring of the sea and the waves. People will faint from fear and expectation of the things that are coming on the world, because the powers of the heavens will be shaken. (Luke 21:25–26)
This brings judgment on the sun, moon, and stars. One-third of each will be darkened, which will cause unbelievable disaster to the world. It will affect the uniformity of the day-night cycle. There will be changes to planet temperatures that will cause severe changes in meteorological, botanical, and biological cycles.
“Woe, woe, woe,” because the remaining three trumpets will be far more severe that the first four, even though the first four were already quite unimaginable. In the Bible, “woe” is a prophetic pronouncement of doom (cf. Isaiah 6:5). Ed Hindson states,
The first four trumpets resulted in human devastation brought about by war and the forces of nature. But the last three trumpets involve supernatural forces—angels and demons. These last three trumpets take us behind the scenes of the human conflict to see the ultimate spiritual war being fought for the control of the earth.6
Trumpet 5. The First Woe
The fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from heaven to earth. The key for the shaft to the abyss was given to him. He opened the shaft to the abyss, and smoke came up out of the shaft like smoke from a great furnace so that the sun and the air were darkened by the smoke from the shaft. Then locusts came out of the smoke on to the earth, and power was given to them like the power that scorpions have on the earth. They were told not to harm the grass of the earth, or any green plant, or any tree, but only those people who do not have God’s seal on their foreheads. They were not permitted to kill them but were to torment them for five months; their torment is like the torment caused by a scorpion when it stings someone. In those days people will seek death and will not find it; they will long to die, but death will flee from them.
The appearance of the locusts was like horses prepared for battle. Something like golden crowns was on their heads; their faces were like human faces; they had hair like women’s hair; their teeth were like lions’ teeth; they had chests like iron breastplates; the sound of their wings was like the sound of many chariots with horses rushing into battle; and they had tails with stingers like scorpions, so that with their tails they had the power to harm people for five months. They had as their king the angel of the abyss; his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he has the name Apollyon.
The first woe has passed. There are still two more woes to come after this. (Revelation 9:1–12)
Here is an example of a context pointing to something as symbolic. The use of the word “star” in verse 1 is obviously intended figuratively rather than literally, for the star is referred to as “him,” thus clearly possessing personality. A “key for the shaft to the abyss” cannot be given to a thing or object, but to a person.
Revelation 9:2 declares that this fallen star opened the abyss, and a great swarm of locusts came out to torment people on the earth. Here, too, the context tells us that the locusts are not literal insects but fallen demon-beings, for we read concerning them,
They had as their king the angel of the abyss; his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he has the name Apollyon. (Revelation 9:11)
They are released for the expressed purpose of tormenting human beings for five months. They are described as having “faces were like human faces; they had hair like women’s hair; their teeth were like lions’ teeth; they had chests like iron breastplates; the sound of their wings was like the sound of many chariots with horses rushing into battle; and they had tails with stingers like scorpions.” They must be especially wicked; thus, they were not permitted to be free until now. Jude refers to them when he says
And the angels who did not keep their own position but abandoned their proper dwelling, he has kept in eternal chains in deep darkness for the judgment on the great day. (Jude 6)
The “judgment on the great day” Jude mentions is when these wicked demon-beings will be let loose for five months to bring judgment upon all the wicked.
This trumpet is also called the “first woe” (9:12) because it causes even greater suffering than the previous judgments. Satan is kicked out of heaven for the second time, and on this occasion, he opens the subterranean abode, called the “Abyss,” where the worst demons have been imprisoned for thousands of years. Hindson explains,
The plagues of locusts described in the Apocalypse represents a demonic invasion of planet earth. The creatures are depicted as having been imprisoned in the abyss. They are released by divine permission and torment unbelievers—those who do not have the “seal of God” (9:4).7
The agony brought upon by these demons will be such that people will seek an end to it by attempting, without success, to take their own lives. Ron Rhodes writes,
People will long for death rather than repent before a holy God. We are not told how their death wishes are frustrated, but God is sovereign over life and death, so no one can die before God’s appointed time (Job 14:5; Acts 17:26; Psalms 31:15; 139:16).8
Trumpet 6. The Second Woe
The sixth angel blew his trumpet. From the four horns of the golden altar that is before God, I heard a voice say to the sixth angel who had the trumpet, “Release the four angels bound at the great river Euphrates.” So the four angels who were prepared for the hour, day, month, and year were released to kill a third of the human race. The number of mounted troops was two hundred million; I heard their number. This is how I saw the horses and their riders in the vision: They had breastplates that were fiery red, hyacinth blue, and sulfur yellow. The heads of the horses were like the heads of lions, and from their mouths came fire, smoke, and sulfur. A third of the human race was killed by these three plagues—by the fire, the smoke, and the sulfur that came from their mouths. For the power of the horses is in their mouths and in their tails, because their tails, which resemble snakes, have heads that inflict injury.
The rest of the people, who were not killed by these plagues, did not repent of the works of their hands to stop worshiping demons and idols of gold, silver, bronze, stone, and wood, which cannot see, hear, or walk. And they did not repent of their murders, their sorceries, their sexual immorality, or their thefts. (Revelation 9:13–21)
Four evil angels are released by God’s permission to accomplish His judgment. Things get worse with this trumpet, said to be the “second woe.” An army of 200 million from the east will destroy one-third of humankind. Many have argued that this is a reference to the Chinese army. For several reasons, however, I believe this is a demonic army. First, contextually, it does not seem to make sense. The 200 million are led by four fallen angels. Second, the description of these “riders” on strange horses in verse 17 does not seem to be describing humans, and the figurative language to describe the horses suggests this is a supernatural rather than human force. The horses themselves and their killing power, not the riders, seem to be the primary focus of attention. Third, it seems best to understand the fifth and sixth trumpet judgments as going together (the fifth is clearly a demonic invasion), since they are the first two of three woes in Revelation 8:13 (cf. Revelation 11:14). Fourth, there are other examples in scripture of supernatural armies of cavalry. Horses of fire swept Elijah up to heaven in 2 Kings 2:11:
As they continued walking and talking, a chariot of fire with horses of fire suddenly appeared and separated the two of them. Then Elijah went up into heaven in the whirlwind.
Horses and chariots of fire protected Elisha at Dothan in 2 Kings 6:13–17:
So the king said, “Go and see where he is, so I can send men to capture him.”
When he was told, “Elisha is in Dothan,” he sent horses, chariots, and a massive army there. They went by night and surrounded the city.
When the servant of the man of God got up early and went out, he discovered an army with horses and chariots surrounding the city. So he asked Elisha, “Oh, my master, what are we to do?”
Elisha said, “Don’t be afraid, for those who are with us outnumber those who are with them.”
Then Elisha prayed, “Lord, please open his eyes and let him see.” So the Lord opened the servant’s eyes, and he saw that the mountain was covered with horses and chariots of fire all around Elisha.
Heavenly horses and horsemen from the celestial realm introduce the reign of Christ in Revelation 19:14: “The armies that were in heaven followed him on white horses, wearing pure white linen.”
It seems reasonable that Satan would mimic the coming of the Kingdom with his own infernal cavalry.
This army will murder millions of people. Between the fourth seal judgment and this judgment, about half of the world’s population will have been killed. Add to this those who have died from famine, war, and disease. We can see how prevalent death will be on earth. Those who are not killed, rather than repenting, will further harden their hearts.
Trumpet 7. The Third Woe
The second woe has passed. Take note: The third woe is coming soon!
The seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven saying, The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he will reign forever and ever. The twenty-four elders, who were seated before God on their thrones, fell facedown and worshiped God, saying, We give you thanks, Lord God, the Almighty, who is and who was,because you have taken your great power and have begun to reign. The nations were angry, but your wrath has come. The time has come for the dead to be judged and to give the reward to your servants the prophets, to the saints, and to those who fear your name, both small and great, and the time has come to destroy those who destroy the earth. Then the temple of God in heaven was opened, and the ark of his covenant appeared in his temple. There were flashes of lightning, rumblings and peals of thunder, an earthquake, and severe hail. (Revelation 11:14–19)
Words from heaven indicate that the world is only a short time away from the Second Coming. All that remains are the seven bowl judgments, which will occur without interruption in the closing months, or even weeks, of the last year of the Tribulation. When this trumpet sounds, eight major events are mentioned: (1) the Lord takes possession of the kingdoms of the world. (2) He will reign forever. (3) God’s wrath has come upon the earth. (4) The judgment of the dead, known as the Great White Throne judgment (those judged will be all who died having rejected Jesus Christ). (5) The Old Testament saints as well as those who became believers during the Tribulation period will be rewarded. They will be rewarded at the end of the Tribulation while the church age believers receive their rewards at the Judgment Seat of Christ after the Rapture and before the Second Coming. (6) Those who destroyed the earth will be destroyed. (7) God’s temple in heaven is opened. (8) The ark of the covenant is revealed.
The seventh trumpet, which ends God’s wrath (cf. Revelation 10:7; 15:1, 8; 16:17), also brings forth the seven bowl judgments, which will target the Antichrist and his followers. These are the most severe judgments of them all.
1 John Phillips, Only God Can Prophecy! (Wheaton, IL: Shaw, 1975), 113.
2 David Jeremiah, Escape the Coming Night (Nashville, TN: Word Publishing, 1999), 142.
3 M. R. DeHaan, Studies in Revelation (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1998), 142.
4 John F. Walvoord, The Revelation of Jesus Christ (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1966), 154–55.
5 Warren W. Wiersbe, “Revelation,” in The Wiersbe Bible Commentary: New Testament (Colorado Springs, CO: David C. Cook, 2007), 1058.
6 Ed Hindson, Revelation: Unlocking the Future, eds. Mal Couch and Ed Hindson, (Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2002), 103.
7 Hindson, Revelation: Unlocking the Future, 108.
8 Ron Rhodes, 40 Days through Revelation (Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers, 2013), 115–16.
Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture quotations are taken from The Christian Standard Bible. Copyright © 2017 by Holman Bible Publishers. Used by permission. Christian Standard Bible®, and CSB® are federally registered trademarks of Holman Bible Publishers, all rights reserved.
Scripture quotations marked (NASB) are taken from the New American Standard Bible®, Copyright © 1960, 1971, 1977, 1995, 2020 by The Lockman Foundation. All rights reserved.
Dr. Miguel J. Gonzalez is the Founder and President of Reasons for Faith International Ministries. He served as a pastor for ten years in Charlotte, NC and has taught in churches and conferences throughout the United States. He currently hosts the Time in the Word and Truth To Live By podcasts and writes at KnowingChristianity.blogspot.com.
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