Interpretive Approach

     I will approach this study from a futurist approach, from a premillennial, dispensational perspective. More will be said in a later chapter about the differing methods of interpretation.

     Dispensational premillennialism can be identified by two basic features: First, a literal hermeneutic. In other words, the words and statements in Scripture should be interpreted in their normal way, in the same way we would customarily interpret any other literature unless, of course, the text demands that it be interpreted in some other way. For example, concerning Christ’s first coming, those prophesies that were made about it were fulfilled literally. Why then would we not interpret prophesies concerning His second coming in the same way? Why would we interpret the Bible literally except when it comes to prophecy, particularly when already fulfilled prophecy was fulfilled literally?

     Mark Hitchcock explains that,

“The method for interpreting Bible prophecy is clearly established in Scripture. All the prophecies of Christ’s first coming were fulfilled literally in the person and work of our Savior. It makes sense to believe that the prophecies of Christ’s second coming will also be fulfilled literally. To spiritualize the prophecies of the last days and deny a literal Tribulation period, a literal Antichrist, a literal battle of Armageddon, a literal restoration of the Jewish people to the land of Israel, and a literal, earthly millennial kingdom violates the method of interpreting Bible prophecy already established in the prophecies of the first coming of Christ.”1

     Second, Dispensational premillennialism maintains a clear distinction between Israel and the Church. Paul Enns writes,

“The term Israel always refers to the physical posterity of Jacob; nowhere does it refer to the church. Although non-dispensationalists frequently refer to the church as the ‘new Israel,’ there is no biblical warrant for doing so. Many passages indicate Israel was still regarded as a distinct entity after the birth of the church ((Rom. 9:6; 1 Cor. 10:32). Israel was given unconditional promises (covenants) in the Old Testament that must be fulfilled with Israel in the millennial kingdom. The church, on the other hand, is a distinct New Testament entity born at Pentecost (1 Cor. 12:13) and not existing in the Old Testament, nor prophesied in the Old Testament (Eph. 3:9). It exists from Pentecost (Acts 2) until the rapture (1 Thess. 4:13-18).”2

  Arnold Fruchtenbaum explains that,

“The term Israel is viewed theologically as referring to all descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, also known as Jews, the Jewish people, Israelites, Hebrews, etc.”

     He goes on to point out the four reasons for Israel’s election:

“(1) [They were] chosen on the basis of God’s love … to be ‘a kingdom of priests and a holy nation’ (Exod. 19:6) … to represent the Gentile nations before God. (2) God chose Israel to be the recipient of His revelation and to record it (Deut. 4:5–8; 6:6–9; Rom. 3:1–2). (3) God chose Israel to be the recipient of His revelation and to record it (Deut. 4:5–8; 6:6–9; Rom. 3:1–2). (4) [Israel] was to produce the Messiah (Rom. 9:5; Heb. 2:16–17; 7:13–14)”.3

     It is when we consider Israel in relation to the church then we begin to get a sense of the differences in understanding.

     Fruchtenbaum goes on to explain that,

“Some theologians insist that at some point the church receives the promises given to Israel and thus become the “New Israel” (known as replacement theology). Some believe the terms church and Israel are used virtually “interchangeably,” most citing Galatians 6:16 and some Romans 9:6.”4

     There is no basis in the text of any biblical passage to support, confusing, or interchanging the terms Israel and the church.

     What is the relationship between Israel and the church? The fact that God has two peoples—Israel and the church—in His single plan for history should not be interpreted as there being two ways of salvation. The only way of salvation is by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone, whether you are a member of Israel or the church.5

     The Bible clearly supports the notion that the church is a distinct work in God’s household from His people Israel. First, Israel has been in existence for centuries and the church was born at Pentecost in A.D. 33 (Acts 2). In Matthew 16:19, in speaking of the church, Christ did so in the future tense,

And I also say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overpower it.

     Paul referred to the church born on Pentecost as the body of which Christ was the head (Colossians 1:18). In 1 Corinthians 12:13 Paul talks about being baptized by the Holy Spirit into the body, yet according to Acts 1:5, that would happen in the future, while in Acts 10 links the baptism of the Holy Spirit to the past, thus confirming that the church began on the Day of Pentecost.

     Second, certain events in the ministry of the Lord were critical to the establishment of the church, without those events the church would not have come into existence. For example, there would be no church without the resurrection and ascension of Christ.

He exercised this power in Christ by raising him from the dead and seating him at his right hand in the heavens— far above every ruler and authority, power and dominion, and every title given, not only in this age but also in the one to come. And he subjected everything under his feet and appointed him as head over everything for the church, which is his body, the fullness of the one who fills all things in every way (Ephesians 1:20-23).

     The Holy Spirit would not come,

Nevertheless, I am telling you the truth. It is for your benefit that I go away, because if I don’t go away the Counselor will not come to you. If I go, I will send him to you (John 16:7).

     And believers would not receive spiritual gifts for the proper functioning of the church,

Now grace was given to each one of us according to the measure of Christ’s gift. For it says: When he ascended on high, he took the captives captive; he gave gifts to people. But what does “he ascended” mean except that he also descended to the lower parts of the earth? The one who descended is also the one who ascended far above all the heavens, to fill all things. And he himself gave some to be apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, some pastors and teachers (Ephesians 4:7-11).

     Third, the church was a mystery never revealed until the New Testament.

The mystery was made known to me by revelation, as I have briefly written above. By reading this you are able to understand my insight into the mystery of Christ. This was not made known to people in other generations as it is now revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit… and to shed light for all about the administration of the mystery hidden for ages in God who created all things (Ephesians 3:3-5, 9).

The mystery hidden for ages and generations but now revealed to his saints. God wanted to make known among the Gentiles the glorious wealth of this mystery, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory (Colossians 1:26-27).

     Fruchtenbaum points out four defining characteristics of the church that are specifically described as a mystery until they are revealed in the New Testament, and that distinguish the church from Israel: (1) the body concept wherein Jewish and Gentile believers are united into one body (Eph. 3:1–12); (2) the doctrine of Christ indwelling every believer (Col. 1:24–27, and see also Col. 2:10–19; 3:4); (3) the church being designated as the Bride of Christ (Eph. 5:22–32); and (4) the rapture (1 Cor. 15:50–58).6

     Fourth, Paul writes in Ephesians 2:15,

He made of no effect the law consisting of commands and expressed in regulations, so that he might create in himself one new man from the two, resulting in peace.

     Notice the unique relationship between redeemed Jews and Gentiles called one new man. In the present church age, God is redeeming from Israel and the Gentiles, the two previous entities, and bringing them together into a new entity—the church. This unity exists only between the birth and the rapture of the church, a time we call the church age. After the rapture of the church, God restores Israel and completes her destiny.

Simeon has reported how God first intervened to take from the Gentiles a people for his name. And the words of the prophets agree with this, as it is written: After these things I will return and rebuild David’s fallen tent. I will rebuild its ruins and set it up again, so that the rest of humanity may seek the Lord—even all the Gentiles who are called by my name—declares the Lord who makes these things known from long ago (Acts 15:14-18).

     Paul points out that division when he writes in 1 Corinthians 10:32,

Give no offense to Jews or Greeks or the church of God.

     Fifth, Paul makes a clear distinction between saved and unsaved Jews. In Galatians 6:16 he writes,

May peace come to all those who follow this standard, and mercy even to the Israel of God.

     Replacement theology proponents argue that this verse demonstrates that the church has supplanted Israel. The problem with that is that the Bible teaches that the church is made up of a combination of elect Gentiles with a remnant of Israel (Eph. 2). They further argue that when Paul describes believers as Abraham’s seed, this is the equivalent to saying that they are the church. But is that really the case? When Paul says that believers are Abraham’s seed, he is pointing out that they participate in the spiritual blessings that come from Israel.

Yes, they were pleased, and indeed are indebted to them. For if the Gentiles have shared in their spiritual benefits, then they are obligated to minister to them in material needs (Rom. 15:27).

If we have sown spiritual things for you, is it too much if we reap material benefits from you?…In the same way, the Lord has commanded that those who preach the gospel should earn their living by the gospel (1 Corinthians 9:11, 14).

     Believing Gentiles are never said to participate in the physical, material, or national promises of Israel, they only participate in their spiritual blessings. So those promises made to Israel are still awaiting fulfillment.

     Sixth, Israel and the church continue to exist simultaneously and as separate entities after the birth of the church on the Day of Pentecost. Throughout the book of Acts, the term Israel occurs twenty times and the term church (ekklesia) occurs nineteen times, and they are always distinct from each other.

     The unconditional nature of the Abrahamic Covenant guarantees Israel’s existence as a permanent nation. It was God Himself who declared it to be a permanent covenant with the people of Israel (Genesis 17:7, 19; 1 Chronicles 16:15–17; Psalm 105:8–10). Israel as a nation will exist forever since a covenant cannot be permanent if one of the covenant parties ceases to exist.

Why is this Distinction Important?

     If we do not properly distinguish Israel from the church, then we eliminate the basis for seeing a future for Israel and the church as a new and unique people of God. We would have to claim, as replacement proponents do, that the promises made to Israel are spiritually fulfilled by the church, even though that is a clear contradiction of what the Bible teaches. We will improperly interpret unfulfilled prophecies regarding Israel by using a different hermeneutical method used in our interpretation of the rest of Scripture. If we eliminate the distinction, the destiny of Israel and the church will be made one, and the need for the future restoration of God’s original chosen people is removed, thus causing the promise in Deuteronomy 28:13 that Israel (will one day be made “the head and not the tail”) to remain unfulfilled.

     Will God’s promises to Israel in the Old Testament covenants be fulfilled literally by Israel or figuratively by the church? The biblical evidence supports the position that Israel and the church are two distinct entities. Therefore, the promises that God made to Israel in the Old Testament covenants will be fulfilled, not by the church, but by Israel.

Other Ground Rules for Interpreting Prophecy

     God has given us the gift of language and made language to be fully capable of communicating to us everything God wanted to say. In Scripture, God communicates with language that conveys truth. Scripture, this includes the prophetic portions, is revealing things from God, not hiding them.

     First, compare one prophecy with another. Peter stated,

Above all, you know this: No prophecy of Scripture comes from the prophet’s own interpretation (2 Peter 1:20).

     Charles Ryrie explains that,

“’Own’ simply means that no prophecy is to be interpreted by itself, but in light of all that God has spoken on the subject.”7

     Warren Wiersbe goes on to say,

“The suggestion is, since all Scripture is inspired by the Spirit it must all “hang together” and no one Scripture should be divorced from the others. You can use the Bible to prove almost anything if you isolate verses from their proper context, which is exactly the approach the false teachers use. Peter stated that the witness of the Apostles confirmed the witness of the prophetic Word; there is one message with no contradiction. Therefore, the only way these false teachers can “prove” their heretical doctrines is by misusing the Word of God. Isolated texts, apart from contexts, become pretexts.”8

     What Peter is saying here is that no prophecy should be interpreted in isolation; it should be interpreted considering everything God has said on the given topic. Prophets were simply contributing pieces to the puzzle since no single prophet received the entire puzzle. As each prophet contributed his piece, the puzzle would start coming together until it was complete. The entire Bible offers us the whole picture, prophecy is just a part of that whole.

     Second, remember the valleys or time intervals between the mountain peaks. Just because two or more future events are predicted one right after another, does not mean that those events will be fulfilled without gaps of time between them. There are instances in which two future events are predicted one right after the other, but the fulfillment of those two events is separated by many years. An illustration of this is found in Isaiah. We find that in that Old Testament book, events connected with both the first and second comings are separated by large time gaps (i.e., Isaiah 9:6-8 and Isaiah 61:1, 2). As the prophet would write about a prophecy, often from his perspective all he could see was one peak right after another, thus missing the valleys or time gaps between them simply because he could not see them.

     Charles Ryrie writes regarding the law of time relationship,

“This law takes another form when future events are so mingled together on the horizon of prophecy as to appear like mountains in a range of mountains, the valleys being hidden. Simply because two events are placed side by side is no proof that the fulfillment will take place simultaneously or even in immediate succession. Isaiah 9:6-8; 61:1-2; Daniel 9:24-27 are a few examples of these tremendous gaps of time in the Scriptures.”9

     Third, remember the law of double reference. Simply stated, this means that a prophecy could have a double fulfillment. An example of this is Isaiah 7:14. Ahaz was given a sign because of a child who was born in his time, yet this prophecy found its complete fulfillment when Jesus was born. Often God would, in the same prophecy, give both a near and a far fulfillment of it. In either case, both fulfillments were literal ones. 

     Fourth, figurative language must be interpreted scripturally. Prophets did not have the benefit of technology that we have today for communicating a message. They were limited to the language they used; therefore, they used symbols as a device to better communicate the message. Those figures of speech and symbols always represent something literal. To properly interpret figurative language used in a prophecy, considering the immediate, larger, and historical-cultural context is critical. Mark Hitchcock explains that,

“The most difficult aspect of interpreting prophecy is understanding the meaning of all the symbols. Bible prophecy uses a broad assortment of symbols to communicate its meaning—horns, beasts, stars, and various colored horses. It’s critical at the outset to remember that, when symbols are employed, they refer to something that is literal.

For instance, in Revelation 1, Jesus stands in the middle of seven golden lampstands holding seven stars in His right hand (1:13, 16). At the end of the chapter Jesus identifies the seven lampstands as the seven churches of Asia and the seven stars as seven angels (1:20). Jesus Himself provides a key to unlock the meaning of symbols. In other words, when we see a symbol in prophecy, we are to look for the literal referent.

Jesus also teaches us in Revelation 1 that numbers in Revelation are to be interpreted literally unless specified otherwise. There are seven lampstands and seven stars, and these correspond to seven literal churches that existed in Asia and seven literal messengers of these churches. Seven means seven both times it is used in Revelation 1 by Jesus.

When interpreting symbols, no interpreter has the freedom to make a symbol mean whatever he or she wants. Scripture sets the parameters for our interpretation of symbols. There are two important steps in understanding what the symbols mean.

So, the first key to discerning the meaning of a symbol is to look at the immediate context for explanations of its meaning.

Second, if a symbol has no clear interpretation in the immediate context, consider the larger context of the entire book where the symbol is found. Sometimes you may even need to consider another portion of Scripture. Many of the symbols used in prophetic passages appear elsewhere in Scripture and have an established meaning. For instance, in Revelation 12:14 the woman is given “two wings like those of a great eagle” to escape from the serpent. In the immediate context, the woman represents the nation of Israel, and the serpent represents Satan. But the wings of the eagle remain unidentified…The imagery of eagles’ wings is found in Exodus 19:4 and Isaiah 40:28–31 and pictures the loving care and deliverance of God for His people.

Symbols are not meaningless, but neither are they an open invitation to let our imaginations run wild. They do not give the interpreter free rein to make the symbol mean whatever he or she wants it to mean. In most cases the immediate context or the use of that same symbol by other biblical writers will establish the boundaries for proper interpretation.”10

     John Walvoord writes that, 

“It is true that prophecy sometimes is presented in an ‘apocalyptic’ or symbolic way, as in Daniel, Ezekiel, and Revelation. But often the Bible itself provides clues to what these symbols mean. For instance, the ten horns in Daniel 7:7 are interpreted in verse 24 to maintain kingdoms or kings. When this is understood, the passage’s meaning becomes clear.  

It is wrong to say that because symbols are included in Revelation, all of the book should be taken symbolically. Many facts are to be accepted in their literal sense (e.g., the stars mentioned in the fourth trumpet judgment are literal, Rev. 8:12), but others are clearly symbolic (e.g., a star in Rev. 9:1 is personified as a person receiving a key).

Interpreting the Bible in its normal, literal way means we recognize figures of speech. And those figures – similes, metaphors, personifications, hyperboles, symbols, and many others – are “word pictures” that present literal truths in a picturesque way.

Since the books of Daniel and Revelation are companion volumes, understanding one helps in understanding the other. Much of the preliminary revelation given in Daniel is more extensively developed in Revelation.”11

     Fifth, prophetic passages should be interpreted literally. This is a critical principle. As students of the Bible and prophecy know, there are many prophetic passages containing symbols and figures of speech, so what do we mean when we are talking about interpreting prophecy literally? By literal interpretation we mean that we approach the words in the prophetic passages in the same way we would approach any other literature.

     J. Dwight Pentecost defines the literal method as,

“That method that gives to each word the same exact basic meaning it would have in normal, ordinary, customary usage, whether employed in writing, speaking or thinking. It is called the grammatical-historical method to emphasize the fact that the meaning is to be determined by both grammatical and historical consideration.”12

     Sixth, the obscure passages should be interpreted in light of the clear passages. This is a simple but critical principle. Often, what is obscure in one section of Scripture is presented clearly in another section of Scripture.

     Seventh, remember the law of fulfillment. When interpreting prophecy that is yet future, prophecy that has already been fulfilled should form the pattern. In other words, when you consider the hundreds of prophecies that have already been literally fulfilled, why would you not expect future prophecy to be fulfilled in the same way? Why would we not use the same interpretational approach to prophecies regarding the second advent of Christ that have been used concerning His first advent? Charles Feinberg writes,

“Take, for example, the words of Gabriel in the first chapter of Luke where he foretells of the birth of Christ. According to the Angels words Mary literally conceived in her womb; literally brought forth a son; his name was literally called Jesus; he was literally great; and he was literally called the son of the highest. Will it not be as literally fulfilled that God will yet give to Christ the throne of his father David, that he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and that of his glorious kingdom there shall be no end?”13

Reliance on the Holy Spirit

     Most people you will talk to about prophecy, will often tell you that they do not study it because they are under the perception that it is too complicated and beyond their ability to comprehend. I will argue that that perception is incorrect, because: (1) It is inconceivable that God would include so much prophecy if there was no way for us to understand it. John writes,

The revelation of Jesus Christ that God gave him to show his servants what must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John (Rev. 1:1).

     Lehman Strauss explains that,

“The word “Revelation” (Gr. Apokalupsis, from which we get our English word apocalypse), conveys the idea of an appearing, a manifestation, a coming, an unveiling. It is in contrast to an apocryphal (or hidden) book. The word is used once only in the Gospel records (Luke 2:32) where it is translated “lighten,” referring to one of the purposes of the Incarnation, namely, to draw away the veil of darkness covering the Gentiles as prophesied in Isaiah 25:7. The same word appears frequently in the Epistles and is translated “manifestation” (Romans 8:19), “coming” (1 Corinthians 1:7), “revealed” (2 Thessalonians 1:7), “appearing” (1 Peter 1:7), “revelation” (1 Peter 1:13).”14

     (2) We have in the Holy Spirit all the help we need to understand prophecy. The Lord Jesus stated in John 16:13,

When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth. For he will not speak on his own, but he will speak whatever he hears. He will also declare to you what is to come.

     Paul wrote in 1 Corinthians 2:11-13,

For who knows a person’s thoughts except his spirit within him? In the same way, no one knows the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. Now we have not received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who comes from God, so that we may understand what has been freely given to us by God. We also speak these things, not in words taught by human wisdom, but in those taught by the Spirit, explaining spiritual things to spiritual people.

     (3) God has provided us His Word, which is inspired, infallible, and inerrant. In 2 Timothy 3:16 Paul tells us that,

All Scripture is inspired by God and is profitable for teaching, for rebuking, for correcting, for training in righteousness.

     And Peter writes in 2 Peter 1:19-21 that,

We also have the prophetic word strongly confirmed, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. Above all, you know this: No prophecy of Scripture comes from the prophet’s own interpretation, because no prophecy ever came by the will of man; instead, men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.

Four Main Interpretive Approaches to the Book of Revelation

ApproachDescription of the Approach
PreteristThe events of Revelation were fulfilled beginning in A.D. 70 with the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans.
HistoricistThe book of Revelation is an overview of church history which describes various times of persecution and tribulation.
IdealistRevelation is interpreted symbolically; it is a nonliteral or allegorical depiction of the battle between God and Satan.
FuturistRevelation chapters 4–22 is interpreted as a prophetic account of actual or literal future events, specifically focused on the end of this age. This view is the natural result of a straightforward reading of the book.

     Four main approaches have been taken when interpreting the book of Revelation. The preterist approach views the prophecy in Revelation as a historical record of events that took place in the first-century Roman Empire.

Blessed is the one who reads aloud the words of this prophecy, and blessed are those who hear the words of this prophecy and keep what is written in it, because the time is near (Revelation 1:3).

Look, I am coming soon! Blessed is the one who keeps the words of the prophecy of this book (Revelation 22:7).

Then he said to me, “Don’t seal up the words of the prophecy of this book, because the time is near” (Revelation 22:10).

I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to them, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book. And if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his share of the tree of life and the holy city, which are written about in this book (Revelation 22:18-19).

     The preterist approach ignores verses such as those listed above which are the book’s own claims to be a prophecy.

Then I saw heaven opened, and there was a white horse. Its rider is called Faithful and True, and with justice he judges and makes war. His eyes were like a fiery flame, and many crowns were on his head. He had a name written that no one knows except himself. He wore a robe dipped in blood, and his name is called the Word of God. The armies that were in heaven followed him on white horses, wearing pure white linen. A sharp sword came from his mouth, so that he might strike the nations with it. He will rule them with an iron rod. He will also trample the winepress of the fierce anger of God, the Almighty. And he has a name written on his robe and on his thigh: King of Kings and Lord of Lords (Revelation 19:11-16).

      The preterist will argue that prophecies about the Lord’s second coming must be understood as already being fulfilled when the temple in Jerusalem was destroyed in A.D. 70, even though Jesus Christ did not appear when that happened. That which is described in Revelation 19 has not happened, it is a future event.

     In the historicist approach, the book of Revelation provides a prophetic overview of the entire panorama, a record of the sweep of church history, stretching from the first century to the second coming of Christ. Ron Rhodes argues that the historicist approach,

“Has led to endless speculations and subjectivity in dealing with the specific details of the book of Revelation. It is difficult if not impossible to arrive at a consensus in the identification of people and events in the text of Revelation. Historicist interpreters tend to view the events of their own day as relating to prophecies in the book of Revelation.”15

     The idealist approach views Revelation as a symbolic description of the struggle between God and Satan, good and evil, throughout the church age up until the second advent of the Lord Jesus Christ. John MacArthur writes that,

“According to this view Revelation is neither historical record nor predictive prophecy. If carried to its logical conclusion, this view disconnects Revelation from any reality with actual historical events. The book is reduced to a collection of myths designed to convey spiritual truth.”16

     The futurist approach sees chapters 4–22 as predictions of people and events yet to come with most of the events spoken of in the book taking place in the end time just before the second advent of the Lord Jesus. This is the only approach that allows the book of Revelation to be interpreted following the same literal method used throughout the rest of Scripture. The other three approaches are frequently forced to resort to allegorizing or spiritualizing the text to sustain their interpretations. The futurist approach provides justice to Revelation’s claim as prophecy.

     Other approaches leave the meaning of Revelation to human opinion or speculation. The futurist approach takes the book’s meaning as God gave it; it is interested in accepting what the words say.

     This approach argues that just as the prophecies of Christ’s first advent (109 of them), were fulfilled literally, so the prophecies of His second advent will be fulfilled literally. Why wouldn’t they?

1 Mark M. Hitchcock, The Complete Book of Bible Prophecy (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1999), p.353

2 Paul Enns, The Moody Handbook of Theology (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1989), pp. 389-390.

3 Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, The Footsteps of the Messiah: A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events (Tustin, CA: Ariel Ministries, 1982, rev. ed. 2003), p. 113-115.

4 Ibid., p. 116.

5 Ibid., p. 113.

6 Ibid., pp. 117-118.

7 Charles C. Ryrie, The Basis of the Premillennial Faith (Dubuque, IA: ECS Ministries), p. 36.

8 Warren W. Wiersbe, “2 Peter,” in The Wiersbe Bible Commentary: New Testament (Colorado Springs, CO: David C. Cook, 2007), p. 937.

9 Ryrie, The Basis of the Premillennial Faith, Op. cit., p. 40.

10 Mark M. Hitchcock, The End: Everything You’ll Want to Know about the Apocalypse (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale, 2012), pp. 56–57.

11 John F. Walvoord, End Times: Understanding Today’s World Events in Biblical Prophecy (Nashville, TN: Word Publishing, 1998), p. 10.

12 J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come (Findlay, OH: Dunham Publishing Company, 1959), p. 9.

13 Charles L. Feinberg, Premillennialism or Amillennialism? (Wheaton, IL: Van Kampen Press), pp. 35-36.

14 Lehman Strauss, The Book of the Revelation: Outlined Studies (© 1964, by Lehman Strauss
Lehman Strauss Commentary – The Book of the Revelation: Outlined Studies. Database © 2008 WORDsearch Corp.), p. 20.

15 Ron Rhodes, The 8 Great Debates of Bible Prophecy (Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers, 2014), p. 129.

16 John F. MacArthur, Because the Time is Near (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 2007), p. 13.

Copyright © 2006–2021 by Miguel J. Gonzalez Th.D.

Dr. Miguel J. Gonzalez is the Founder and President of Reasons for Faith International Ministries. He served as a pastor for ten years in Charlotte, NC and has taught in churches and conferences throughout the United States. He currently hosts the Time in the Word and Truth To Live By podcasts and writes at

Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture is taken from The Christian Standard Bible. Copyright © 2017 by Holman Bible Publishers. Used by permission. Christian Standard Bible®, and CSB® are federally registered trademarks of Holman Bible Publishers, all rights reserved.

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