Nobody who has lived long can deny that the world today is a far more dangerous place than at any other time in history. Weapons of mass destruction, such as nuclear bombs, and biological weapons in the hands of the wrong people or nation would be catastrophic (of the apocalyptic sort). Terrorist threats to cut the oil supply, as we have seen in recent decades, could have devastating effects on countries and regions who are dependent on it for their survival. Today, experts on global politics have been affirming that the escalating Middle East conflicts, civil wars, insurgencies, and terrorism are by far the most persistent and widespread threats to the global flow of oil. How long will the world tolerate conditions that threaten to disrupt critical oil supplies and create real threats of war that would quickly extend beyond regional borders?
There is a reason why nations around the world have sought to broker peace treaties in that hotspot known as the Middle East, one that would: (1) bring peace to the region by settling regional disputes, (2) disarm the bad actors and antagonists, and (3) provide some guarantees to the global community. This would obviously have to be a treaty with real teeth, one that could and would be enforced, by force if necessary.
Scripture is clear in teaching that out of the crisis and chaos the world will be in, a powerful leader will emerge who will offer such a treaty. He will offer the world exactly what it needs and wants. He will be powerful enough to bring under control those regional disputes, terrorism, and keep the flow of oil. He will appear to have accomplished something world leaders have sought to accomplish for decades but were never able to.
The Peace Treaty and Beyond
So, a ten-nation confederation which seeks to protect the Western interests will emerge. Many Bible prophecy experts agree that the European Union (EU) is at a minimum a forerunner to this group of ten leaders. This confederation initially led by ten constitutes the revived Roman Empire in its final form. From that confederation will emerge a final leader who will successfully cease control of three of the ten leaders and consolidate power very much like the Roman Empire of old.
“While I was considering the horns, suddenly another horn, a little one, came up among them, and three of the first horns were uprooted before it. And suddenly in this horn there were eyes like the eyes of a human and a mouth that was speaking arrogantly” (Daniel 7:8).
That important event will be precisely what inaugurates the Tribulation period and the powerful leader who signs the seven-year treaty with Israel will be no less than the Antichrist himself.
“He will make a firm covenantwith many for one week, but in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice and offering. And the abomination of desolation will be on a wing of the templeuntil the decreed destruction is poured out on the desolator” (Daniel 9:27).
The Antichrist is related to the Roman Empire and its people who destroyed Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The signed covenant is intended to bring peace between the Arabs/Muslims and the Israelis, end terrorism, and bring stability to the global economy.
“After those sixty-two weeks the Anointed One will be cut off and will have nothing. The people of the coming ruler will destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end will come with a flood, and until the end there will bewar; desolations are decreed” (Daniel 9:26).
What the Past Tells Us about the Future
The main reason for believing in the revived Roman Empire is because prophecy requires it. The prophecies dealing with the final phase of the fourth and final empire have never been literally fulfilled. To those who believe the Bible, the prophecies of the future are just as authentic as the prophecies already fulfilled in the history of past world empires. The revived Roman Empire in the form anticipated in the prophecies of Daniel is yet to come on the stage of world history.
John Walvoord explains that,
“In presenting these two forms of the Roman Empire, Daniel skips over many centuries from historical Rome immediately to end-time prophecy. This kind of “prophetic skip” is consistent with the principle found much of Old Testament prophecy: often the writer describes events that were prophetically fulfilled in Israel’s exile or the first coming of Christ and then moves almost immediately from those details into end-time prophecy, describing the Great Tribulation and millennial reign of Christ.”1
Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream and its Interpretation
During the second year of Nebuchadnezzar’s rule over Babylon, God gave Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar a vision of the future. Although there was no existing threat to the king or his kingdom, the dream God gave him brought him a great deal of anxiety. Though he failed to understand the meaning of the dream, he seemed to know that the dream had ominous implications.
He called his counselors and demanded that they give him a description and interpretation of the vision. Can you imagine? He wanted his counselors to know what he dreamed and then tell him what it meant. Of course, the counselors were unable to do that, which infuriated the king.
“Because of this, the king became violently angry and gave orders to destroy all the wise men of Babylon. The decree was issued that the wise men were to be executed, and they searched for Daniel and his friends, to execute them” (Daniel 2:12-13).
When Daniel heard of the king’s decree, he and his friends sought God in prayer asking that He give them a vision of the king’s dream and its interpretation. God answered their prayer and Daniel was given what had been requested. Daniel went to the man “assigned to destroy the wise men of Babylon” and said to him,
“… ‘Don’t destroy the wise men of Babylon! Bring me before the king, and I will give him the interpretation’” (Daniel 2:24).
Daniel was brought before Nebuchadnezzar and was asked if he could interpret the dream; Daniel explained that he could not but told him who could.
“Daniel answered the king, “No wise man, medium, magician, or diviner is able to make known to the king the mystery he asked about. But there is a God in heaven who reveals mysteries, and he has let King Nebuchadnezzar know what will happen in the last days. Your dream and the visions that came into your mind as you lay in bed were these” (Daniel 2:27-28).
Daniel explained to Nebuchadnezzar that God had revealed the mystery to him. Now the time had come for this young Jewish prophet to “deliver the goods.”
Daniel first described the vision God had given Nebuchadnezzar.
“Your Majesty, while you were in your bed, thoughts came to your mind about what will happen in the future. The revealer of mysteries has let you know what will happen… Your Majesty, as you were watching, suddenly a colossal statue appeared. That statue, tall and dazzling, was standing in front of you, and its appearance was terrifying. The head of the statue was pure gold, its chest and arms were silver, its stomach and thighs were bronze, its legs were iron, and its feet were partly iron and partly fired clay” (Daniel 2:29, 31-33).
This image was intended to teach, not only Nebuchadnezzar and Daniel, but the entire human race, that God is sovereign and in control and as such, it is only He who writes the history of human civilization. It is God who brings about the rise and fall of empires.
“He changes the times and seasons; he removes kings and establishes kings. He gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to those who have understanding” (Daniel 2:21).
Daniel explains to the king that the dream is about his kingdom and those that would succeed it—a dream about the kingdoms of the world. The image in the king’s vision represented four successive Gentile world powers. Within verses 36-45, depending on the translation of the Bible you use, the work “kingdom” is used eight to ten times. What is the meaning of the word? The word “kingdom” designates a people and territory that is ruled by one government. Daniel explains that the sections of the image represented the worldwide kingdoms or empires that would follow and replace one another in the future.
The mystery revealed by God was a composite history of the remaining days of the world. We know this because he spoke specifically of “the last days” and “what will happen in the future.”
“But there is a God in heaven who reveals mysteries, and he has let King Nebuchadnezzar know what will happen in the last days. Your dream and the visions that came into your mind as you lay in bed were these: Your Majesty, while you were in your bed, thoughts came to your mind about what will happen in the future. The revealer of mysteries has let you know what will happen” (Daniel 2:28-29).
Daniel began to reveal the meaning of the statue’s five sections: the gold head, the chest and arms of silver, the stomach and thighs bronze, the legs of iron, and the feet and toes, part iron, part clay.
The Head of Gold
Daniel told Nebuchadnezzar,
“Your Majesty, you are king of kings. The God of the heavens has given you sovereignty, power, strength, and glory. Wherever people live—or wild animals, or birds of the sky—he has handed them over to you and made you ruler over them all. You are the head of gold” (Daniel 2:37-38).
The head of gold represented both the Babylonian kingdom and its great king. Renald Showers explains that,
“It was an appropriate representation for two reasons. First, Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, was called the god of gold. Second, Babylon used gold extensively in its buildings, images and shrines. Herodotus, who was at Babylon ninety years after the era of Nebuchadnezzar, was astonished at the amount of gold there. Even walls and buildings were overlaid with gold.”2
The Chest and Arms of Silver
But Babylon was to be succeeded by a second kingdom; another power represented by the chest and arms of silver would rise and conquer the head of gold (Daniel 2:39a). History and Daniel 8:20 tell us that this was Persia, the two arms representing the coalition of Persia and Media in one great world empire. The Medes and the Persians were united in 550 BC under the same king. The prophecy was fulfilled when Medo-Persia conquered Babylon in 539 BC. As silver is inferior to gold, so was Medo-Persia inferior to Babylon in one respect, as a partnership empire, it lacked the absolute unity that Babylon had. Showers states that,
“Why was silver a fitting representation of the Medo-Persian kingdom? In ancient times silver signified money, for silver was the standard of value and the medium of exchange. Medo-Persia became noted for basing its power on money which was collected through an extensive tax system (Ezra 4:13; Dan. 11:2).”3
The Stomach and Arms of Bronze
Medo-Persia would then be succeeded by a third Gentile kingdom represented by the image’s stomach and thighs of bronze (Daniel 2:39b). History and Daniel 8:21 tell us that this was Greece, under Alexander the Great and his successors. This prophecy was fulfilled when Greece conquered the Medo-Persians in 331 BC. Alexander’s empire was significantly larger geographically than both the Babylonian and Medo-Persian empires.
The Grecian empire is appropriately represented by one stomach and two thighs. Alexander the Great successfully unified his kingdom. After his death, his kingdom was divided among his four leading generals. Of the four divisions, only two played an important role in history. Those two divisions headquartered in Syria and Egypt. Showers writes,
“Why did God represent Greece with bronze? The Greeks developed this metal highly and used it extensively in their implements of war. Thus, their kingdom was characterized by bronze.”4
The Legs of Iron
The Grecian empire was to be succeeded by a fourth Gentile kingdom represented by the image’s legs of iron and feet and toes of iron and clay.
This was going to be the Roman Empire. Rome is represented with two legs because it ruled extensive areas of both the western and eastern divisions of the world. In 364 AD the Roman Empire was divided politically into two divisions—the Western Roman Empire with Rome serving as its capital and the Eastern Roman Empire with Constantinople serving as its capital. This prophecy was fulfilled when Rome conquered Greece by 146 AD. Showers explains that,
“Iron was an excellent designation of Rome for at least two reasons. First, ancient Rome was noted for its use of iron in its military weaponry. Second, as Daniel indicated in 2:40, just as iron is able to crush gold, silver and bronze because it is stronger, so Rome would crush and shatter the ancient world. Ancient Rome did just that through its great military strength.”5
This empire is described by Daniel as,
“…strong as iron; for iron crushes and shatters everything, and like iron that smashes, it will crush and smash all the others” (Daniel 2:40).
David Jeremiah explains that,
“History shows us clearly that Rome is the fourth kingdom. Not only was Rome the successor to the Greek empire, but the iron legs of the image provide a powerful symbol that characterizes the nature of the Romans. The word iron is used fourteen times in the text describing Rome in Daniel 2. Historians often use iron as an adjective when characterizing the Roman Empire: Rome’s iron hand. Rome’s iron grip. Rome’s iron rule. Rome’s iron fist. Rome’s iron heel. Rome’s iron legions.”6
The Feet and Toes of Iron and Clay
Daniel’s downward movement on the image represented the passage of time. As he comes to the last part of the image—the feet and toes—he deals with the final form of Gentile world dominion in time. Since the feet and toes were part of the representation of the Roman kingdom, they portrayed the Roman Empire in its final stage of existence in contrast with its earlier leg stage.
The legs consisted of iron and the feet and toes were a mixture of iron and clay. This differentiation in substance also indicated that the Roman Empire would experience two distinct stages of existence, an earlier and a later stage.
What about the iron and clay mixture? The Roman Empire would be strong militarily just as iron is strong. The last stage of the empire would be characterized by division just as clay is characterized by brittleness. As iron and clay do not combine completely with each other, so the different groups of individuals would combine to form the final stage but would not unite or adhere completely.
Ultimately, the empire will split into ten toes.
“You saw the feet and toes, partly of a potter’s fired clay and partly of iron—it will be a divided kingdom, though some of the strength of iron will be in it. You saw the iron mixed with clay, and that the toes of the feet were partly iron and partly fired clay—part of the kingdom will be strong, and part will be brittle” (Daniel 2:41-42).
In Daniel chapter 7 the ten toes are seen in the form of ten horns.
“After this, while I was watching in the night visions, suddenly a fourth beast appeared, frightening and dreadful, and incredibly strong, with large iron teeth. It devoured and crushed, and it trampled with its feet whatever was left. It was different from all the beasts before it, and it had ten horns” (Daniel 7:7).
The events described in Daniel 7 occur in the days of the ten horns, including the eleventh horn (i.e., the final Antichrist). The ten toes of the iron kingdom are ten future kings who will control the territory of the Roman Empire at the time of the seventieth week of Daniel.
“While I was considering the horns, suddenly another horn, a little one, came up among them, and three of the first horns were uprooted before it. And suddenly in this horn there were eyes like the eyes of a human and a mouth that was speaking arrogantly… The ten horns are ten kings who will rise from this kingdom. Another king, different from the previous ones, will rise after them and subdue three kings. He will speak words against the Most High and oppress the holy ones of the Most High. He will intend to change religious festivals and laws, and the holy ones will be handed over to him for a time, times, and half a time. But the court will convene, and his dominion will be taken away, to be completely destroyed forever. The kingdom, dominion, and greatness of the kingdoms under all of heaven will be given to the people, the holy ones of the Most High. His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will serve and obey him” (Daniel 7:8, 24-27).
“Seventy weeks are decreed about your people and your holy city—to bring the rebellion to an end, to put a stop to sin, to atone for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy place. Know and understand this: From the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until an Anointed One, the ruler, will be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks. It will be rebuilt with a plaza and a moat, but in difficult times. After those sixty-two weeks the Anointed One will be cut off and will have nothing. The people of the coming ruler will destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end will come with a flood, and until the end there will be war; desolations are decreed. He will make a firm covenantwith many for one week, but in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice and offering. And the abomination of desolation will be on a wing of the templeuntil the decreed destruction is poured out on the desolator” (Daniel 9:24-27).
John Whitcomb states that,
“The frequent mention of clay mixed with the later stages of the iron kingdom… points to political disintegration and decay. Nevertheless, the political disintegration of Rome was balanced by elements of strength that continue to this day and will be present to the end of this age. “It will be a divided kingdom; but it will have in it the toughness of iron” (2:41). Amazingly, then,
‘The so-called Dark Ages that followed in Western Europe could not eradicate the profound imprint left by the Roman civilization. Roman law is still alive; the Romance languages are but modifications of Roman speech. Roman Catholicism for fifteen centuries was the only religion and the main cultural force of Western Europe. The fall of Rome marked no abrupt ending of an era, for the barbarians that filled the gap left by the disappearance of the old order were quick in accepting and adapting what vital elements there remained of it. The survival of the East Roman Empire and the creation of the Holy Roman Empire showed how much vitality there was left in the imperial ideal.’
In the mysterious providence of God, the brittleness of clay (the instability of people movements?) is thus balanced by “the toughness of iron” (Roman institutions and ideals?) to maintain at least the vague identity of Rome until Christ the King of kings returns from heaven to smash and completely replace it with His perfect kingdom.”7
So, as we look at the future revived Roman Empire, it appears that it will go through three major stages. First, the first phase of the Empire’s revival will be marked by a group of ten kings or some form of ruling autocracy will appear. In the second stage, the ten nations will consolidate into a united empire and a strong man will emerge. In the third stage, this revived Roman Empire will extend its power globally. When the Northern power bloc (the Russian and Islamic alliance of Gog and Magog described in Ezekiel 38–39) attempts to invade Israel, it will be decimated and create a power vacuum in the region which the Antichrist will move in to fill.
We must conclude that the final stage of the revived Roman Empire is yet future since the Roman Empire, in its entire history, has never consisted of a ten-nation confederation. Jeremiah states that,
“When we look back at the history that followed Daniel’s prediction, we find nothing in history that even remotely corresponds to a tenfold Roman coalition. That shows us that this fifth and final feet-and-toes-stage kingdom is yet to come and is yet to perform its prescribed role in human history.”8
Mark Hitchcock says that,
“Sometime beyond the present there will be a revival of the Roman Empire. The empire that died in 476 AD will be brought to life again in the form of a ten nation confederation.”9
A fifth kingdom will succeed the revived Roman Empire.
“In the days of those kings, the God of the heavens will set up a kingdom that will never be destroyed, and this kingdom will not be left to another people. It will crush all these kingdoms and bring them to an end, but will itself endure forever. You saw a stone break off from the mountain without a hand touching it, and it crushed the iron, bronze, fired clay, silver, and gold. The great God has told the king what will happen in the future. The dream is certain, and its interpretation reliable” (Daniel 2:44-45).
Note some of the facts regarding this kingdom:
- it is a kingdom which will be set up by “the God of the heavens”
- it will “never be destroyed”
- no other kingdom will ever succeed it, “…and this kingdom will not be left to another people… but will itself endure forever”
- it will destroy and end all the Gentile kingdoms which were portrayed in the image in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, “It will crush all these kingdoms and bring them to an end”
Notice how Daniel ends his God-given interpretation of the king’s dream,
“The great God has told the king what will happen in the future. The dream is certain, and its interpretation reliable” (Daniel 2:45).
As believers, we can rest assured that,
“…no prophecy ever came by the will of man; instead, men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit” (2 Peter 1:21).
Parallels Between Daniel 2 and 7
|Daniel 2||Daniel 7||World Empire|
|Head of Gold||Lion||Babylon|
|Chest and Arms of Silver||Bear||Medo-Persia|
|Belly and Thighs of Bronze||Leopard||Greece|
|Ten Toes||Ten Horns||Revived Roman Empire|
|The Stone that destroys the image||Christ receives the Kingdom||Christ’s Kingdom|
The Re-Unification of the Roman Empire
It certainly appears that the revived Roman Empire that Daniel described is already taking shape. It began in 1957 with The Treaty of Rome, signed on March 25, 1957 on Capitoline Hill, one of the well-known Seven Hills of Rome. From that point on, European countries have been coming together; this amalgamation of countries has occurred in just sixty years.
There were two critical events in the 20th century which provided the necessary impetus for the reunification of Europe, which by the way, was the core of the historical Roman Empire. First, World War I and World War II. Wars between European countries was nothing new; they had been doing that for centuries. The normal cycle was for a European country to fight another, then regroup and get ready for the next war. But something changed after World War II. Rather than regrouping and getting ready for the next war, European countries came together forming a coalition of nations first known as the Common Market. So significant was this change that Walvoord states,
“For the first time in 1,600 years the necessary preconditions for a reunited, revived Roman Empire predicted by Daniel were in place. This situation establishes, at least on the surface, a peaceful relationship between these major countries. This is a necessary prelude to the revival of the Roman Empire as prophesied in the Bible.”10
Second, in December of 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as president of the Soviet Union, declared his office extinct, and handed power over to Boris Yeltsin, the first president of the Russian Federation. The dissolution of the Soviet Union paved the way for the rise of the revived Roman Empire. Without the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the eight Eastern European countries that joined the European Union in 2004 would have never been able to do so. The fall of the Soviet Union was another critical and necessary development in setting the stage for the revival of the Roman Empire
T.R. Reid, author of The United States of Europe, describes the new European super-state in 2004:
“At the dawn of the twenty-first century, a geopolitical revolution of historic dimensions is under way across the Atlantic: the unification of Europe. Twenty-five nations have joined together—with another dozen or so on the waiting list—to build a common economy, government, and culture. Europe is a more integrated place today than at any time since the Roman Empire.”11
The Empire Is Back
The Roman Empire that had ceased to exist for 1,600 years is coming back together before our eyes. The European Union has:
- a 705 member European Parliament headquartered in Strasbourg, France
- a Council of the European Union president. Since the 2007 Treaty of Lisbon, article 15 of Treaty on European Union states that the European Council appoints a full-time president to serve a two-and-a-half-year term (with the possibility of renewal once)
- a supreme court (the Court of Justice)
- committees designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation
- one currency that has been approved by 19 of the 27-member countries
- unrestricted travel among member nations by citizens of member states
Additionally, The EU is presently working toward a unified military and criminal justice system. In his article, A European Army: Can the Dream Become A Reality?, Fabrice Pothier writes,
“Following Emmanuel Macron’s recent call for the creation of a European army, defense specialists and commentators were swift in their derision of the idea as a political provocation and pipedream. It was the first time a French leader had endorsed the idea, which is usually promoted by die-hard European federalists.
The French president is known to like a bold vision, but he is seldom naïve or ideological. Moreover, as the commander-in-chief of the European armed forces most deployed abroad, and soon the sole nuclear power in the European Union, his words cannot be taken lightly. It was equally significant that Macron’s call was later echoed – with some caveats – by the German Chancellor Angela Merkel in a speech at the European Parliament.”12
Walvoord concludes that,
“What has developed in Europe during the last fifty years looks strikingly similar to what the Bible predicts for the end times. The basic governmental and economic components are in place for some kind of ten-ruler group or committee to come on the scene in the EU and ascend to power. And the next step will be for one man to rise to ultimate power in that group and take over as the strongman to rule the world. That man will be the Antichrist, and he will rule over the final form of the Roman Empire and ultimately the whole world.
While the current EU is not the final, ultimate fulfillment of the biblical prophecies, the events in Europe today seem to be the necessary prelude to the reunited Roman Empire prophesied by Daniel over 2,500 years ago.
The stage is set for new alignment of power similar to the revived Roman Empire, which will promise peace to a world disrupted by catastrophe and on the brink of chaos.”13
As for Europe’s economy, Hitchcock states that,
“Europe has now emerged as the richest region in the world.”14
Kimberly Amadeo in The EU Has Replaced the U.S. as the World’s Largest Economy, writes that,
“In 2007, the U.S. lost its seat to the European Union (EU) as the world’s largest economy. The EU’s economy produced $14.4 trillion in goods and services, while U.S. Gross Domestic Product came in at $13.86 trillion.”15
Wake up Europe! an article in The Economist (October 10, 2009), states that,
“In the wake of the economic meltdown of 2008, wealth declined in North America by 20 percent. By contrast, assets in Europe shrunk by only 5.8 percent. Europe now boasts the world’s biggest economy.”16
According to The Balance, as of 2018, the share of the EU economy stood at 16.3%, while the share of the United States’ economy stood at 15.2%17
Thomas Ice and Timothy Deny conclude that,
“One would have to be totally ignorant of developments within the world of our day not to admit that, through the efforts of the European Union, ‘Humpty Dumpty’ is finally being put back together again. This is occurring, like all of the other needed developments of prophecy, at just the right time to be in place for the coming tribulation period.”18
Hitchcock states that,
“The EU has tried to adopt a constitution, but it was shot down by referendum votes in France and the Netherlands in 2005. So, the leaders of Europe circumvented a popular vote and went the route of putting together a treaty that could be approved by representatives of each nation rather than by popular vote. It is known as the Lisbon Treaty. The Lisbon Treaty, which came into effect on December 1, 2009, is a major step that could pave the way for one man to rise to ascendancy over Europe. The treaty effectively ends national sovereignty for most European nations. From this point onward, most of the key decisions for the citizens of Europe will be made by a small group of European elitists—many of them unelected. This points toward the Group of Ten leaders predicted in Daniel.”19
Before our very eyes, the stage is set for a new alignment of power that will promise peace to a world on the brink of disaster. We are witnessing the emergence of an increasingly unified and powerful empire, the kind of unified and powerful empire the Bible tells us to expect in the last days.
1 John F. Walvoord and Mark M. Hitchcock, Armageddon, Oil, and Terror (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 2007), 80.
2 Renald E. Showers, The Most High God: Commentary On The Book Of Daniel (Bellmawr, NJ: Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, Inc., 1982), 17-18.
3 Ibid., 18.
4 Ibid., 19.
5 Ibid., p. 19.
6 David Jeremiah, What In The World Is Going On? (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2008), 52-53.
7 John C. Whitcomb, Daniel – Everyday Bible Commentary (Chicago, IL: by The Moody Bible Institute of Chicago, 1985 edition 2018, Database © 2020 Wordsearch), 52.
8 Jeremiah, What In The World Is Going On?, 54.
9 Mark M. Hitchcock, The Amazing Claims of Bible Prophecy (Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers, 2010).
10 Walvoord and Hitchcock, Armageddon, Oil, and Terror, 83.
11 Cited in Hitchcock, The Amazing Claims of Bible Prophecy.
12 Source: https://www.iiss.org/blogs/analysis/2019/01/macron-european-army-reality
13 Walvoord and Hitchcock, Armageddon, Oil, and Terror, 84.
14 Hitchcock, The Amazing Claims of Bible Prophecy.
15 Cited in Hitchcock, The Amazing Claims of Bible Prophecy.
17 Source: https://www.thebalance.com/world-s-largest-economy-3306044
18 Thomas Ice and Timothy Demy, The Truth About the Signs of the Times (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1997), 37.
19 Hitchcock, The Amazing Claims of Bible Prophecy.
Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture quotations are taken from The Christian Standard Bible. Copyright © 2017 by Holman Bible Publishers. Used by permission. Christian Standard Bible®, and CSB® are federally registered trademarks of Holman Bible Publishers, all rights reserved.
Dr. Miguel J. Gonzalez is the Founder and President of Reasons for Faith International Ministries. He served as a pastor for ten years in Charlotte, NC and has taught in churches and conferences throughout the United States. He currently hosts the Time in the Word and Truth To Live By podcasts and writes at KnowingChristianity.blogspot.com.
Copyright © 2006–2021 by Miguel J. Gonzalez Th.D. and published by Reasons for Faith International Ministries, Inc. by permission. No part may be altered or edited in any way. Permission is granted to use in digital or printed form so long as it is circulated without charge, and in its entirety. This document may not be repackaged in any form for sale or resale. All reproductions must contain the copyright notice (i.e., Copyright © 2006-2021 Miguel J. Gonzalez Th.D.) and this Copyright/Limitations notice.